4. Working Papers

Working papers are research-oriented and strongly analytical preliminary papers circulated for comments. These are issued to share ideas about a topic and present findings of research or work in progress. They have coherent analysis and technical content flow and are typically text-driven with minimal images. Working papers present cutting-edge analysis and research, and are subject to formal revision and correction before they are finalized and considered published. Working papers are quick-disseminating, informal publications that seek to provide information, generate discussion, and elicit comments so that they could be subsequently revised for publication as articles in professional journals or as chapters in books.


  • Understanding SME Trade Finance in ASEAN: An Overview 

    Cavoli, Tony; Christian, David; Shrestha, Rashesh (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, 2022-02-28)
    SMEs are the most important source of employment in all ASEAN countries, but a lack of access to external sources of finance may limit their expansion and growth. In particular, the existence of a trade finance gap can curtail their participation in ...
  • Addressing Nutrition Security in Urban India through Multisectoral Action 

    Gopalan, Sundararajan Srinivasa; Bhatia, Rajesh; Khetrapal, Sonalini; Ra, Sungsup (Asian Development Bank, 2022-02-28)
    The Asian Development Bank is supporting the implementation of the National Urban Health Mission in India. In support of the undertaking, this paper provides available evidence-based data on urban nutrition in the country and explores practical ...
  • Global Value Chains and Premature Deindustrialisation in Malaysia 

    Lee, Cassey (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, 2022-02-28)
    Malaysia has experienced premature deindustrialisation since the early 1990s. The decline in the relative contribution of manufacturing to the economy has been underpinned by structural changes in the electronic, electrical, and machinery industries. ...
  • Chief Executive Officer Attributes and Trade 

    Ito, Tadashi; Saito, Yukiko Umeno (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, 2022-02-28)
    Many articles in international trade literature have shown that firm productivity is a robust determinant of firms’ export and import activities. Further, the literature has also found that, despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of ...

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