Toward Gender-Focused Governance Reform in Asia
Kim, Kunmin; Salazar, Dani Rose C. | December 2018
The global population is composed of an almost equal proportion of men and women. In contrast, the global labor force is disproportionately male. Only four in every 10 workers in the global labor force are women.1 Similar discrepancies between the women’s share in the population and the labor force are reported in Asia and the Pacific, specifically in Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the Republic of Korea (Figure 1). India has the widest gap (about 23 percentage points) between the population and labor force shares, which are 48% and 25% female, respectively. The gender labor force participation rate shows the contribution of each gender to the labor force, expressed as a percentage of the total population of each gender (aged 15+) in the country (Figure 2). The male labor participation rate in Asia and the Pacific is about 71%–89%. The female labor force participation rate varies widely, from a high of 81% in Cambodia to a very low rate of only 27% in India. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and Viet Nam recorded high female participation rates of 77% and 73%, respectively. In Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines and the Republic of Korea, only 50% of the female population is part of the labor force.
CitationKim, Kunmin; Salazar, Dani Rose C.. 2018. Toward Gender-Focused Governance Reform in Asia. © Asian Development Bank Institute. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/9471. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
Assessing Corporate Governance
Corporate Governance Reform
Equal employment opportunity
Fair employment practice
Affirmative action programs
Sex discrimination against women
Equal rights amendment
Emancipation of women
Intergovernmental cooperationShow allCollapse