Measuring, Monitoring, and Operational Quality of Growth - Implications for the People's Republic of China
Jha, Shikha | October 2018
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has experienced strong and robust economic performance over the past few decades (Asian Development Bank [ADB] 2016). Between 1980 and 2016, its annual growth averaged 9.7% for gross domestic product (GDP) and 8.6% for per capita income. However, this rapid growth has not always translated into expansion in social welfare, and has created challenges in the environmental dimension as well. Inequality remains a significant challenge as some social groups, and people in rural areas and lagging provinces, have not benefited as much from the growth process. Moreover, being the world’s largest energy consumer with a coal-dominant energy mix, and as the world’s largest greenhouse gas emitter, the PRC is estimated to suffer pollution damage of around 6%–9% of GDP. In addition, climate change poses a serious threat to the ecological environment. To address socioeconomic disparities, the government set the goal of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, 2006–2010 as building a harmonious and moderately prosperous (xiao kang) society (ADB 2008). The Twelfth Five-Year Plan, 2011–2015 supported this long-term strategy through livelihood improvements and regionally balanced and environmentally sustainable growth (ADB 2012). The emphasis on the new normal continues through the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan, 2016–2020, which also aims to realize an “ecological civilization” to (i) promote sustainable development and curtail resource depletion and environmental damage; (ii) promote energy conservation, emissions reduction, and low-carbon development to address climate change; and (iii) establish a national carbon emission trading system. The government has also intensified efforts to reduce local air pollution and smog under its “blue skies” initiative (Phillips 2017).
CitationJha, Shikha. 2018. Measuring, Monitoring, and Operational Quality of Growth - Implications for the People's Republic of China. © Asian Development Bank. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/8797. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
Environmentally Sustainable Development
Natural resources policy
Forest site mapping
Environment impact assessment
Environmental impact statements
Agricultural landscape management
Protection of environment
Natural beauty conservation
Urban impact analysis