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Trade and Women

dc.contributor.authorBen Shepherd
dc.contributor.authorSusan Stone
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-01T09:50:15Z
dc.date.available2017-03-01T09:50:15Z
dc.date.issued2017-01-30
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11540/6761
dc.description.abstractThis paper outlines the various channels through which women are part of the global trading economy. It focuses on women as consumers, workers, business owners, and informal cross-border traders. Trade theory offers rich implications for the relationship between gender and trade, but depends on patterns of consumption and production that may differ across countries. As an example, we examine the case of agricultural products, a sector in which products are consumed relatively more intensively by women than by men. The evidence shows that tariffs are higher in this sector, which means that women consumers are disadvantaged relative to men. On the other hand, the extension of export opportunities in developing countries in light manufacturing industries, such as apparel, can offer important prospects for women workers; these opportunities are often their entry point into the formal labor market, and provide an independent income that can change household power dynamics in a favorable way. New empirical evidence from developing country firms shows that internationally engaged firms tend to employ a higher proportion of women workers. However, much remains to be done. Discriminatory norms are deeply engrained in all countries, and are reflected in a global gender wage gap. Moreover, women-owned businesses, although active in the international economy, face specific obstacles that make it harder for them to grow and succeed. Although trade has the potential to support genderinclusive growth and development, it will be important to get domestic regulatory settings right, so that a positive cycle can result.
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherAsian Development Bank Institute
dc.rightsCC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo
dc.titleTrade and Women
dc.typeWorking Papers
dc.subject.expertComparative Analysis
dc.subject.expertSocial Research
dc.subject.expertSex Discrimination
dc.subject.expertEmployment Discrimination
dc.subject.expertWomen's Rights
dc.subject.expertEqual Opportunity
dc.subject.expertEqual Pay
dc.subject.expertFeminism
dc.subject.expertMen's Role
dc.subject.expertWomen's Role
dc.subject.expertTextile Industry
dc.subject.expertIntra-Industry Trade
dc.subject.expertDevelopment cooperation
dc.subject.expertInterindustry Trade
dc.subject.expertSmall Scale Industry
dc.subject.expertMedium Scale Industry
dc.subject.expertManufacturing Industries
dc.subject.expertTextile industry and fabrics
dc.subject.adbGender
dc.subject.adbGender Bias
dc.subject.adbGender Differences
dc.subject.adbGender Discrimination
dc.subject.adbGender Equality
dc.subject.adbGender Gaps
dc.subject.adbGender Inequality
dc.subject.adbGender Issues
dc.subject.adbGender Relations
dc.subject.adbGender Roles
dc.subject.adbTextile Industry
dc.subject.adbIntra-Industry Trade
dc.subject.adbDevelopment cooperation
dc.subject.adbClothing Industry
dc.subject.adbCommerce and Industry
dc.subject.naturalGender-based analysis
dc.subject.naturalSex differences
dc.subject.naturalJob bias
dc.subject.naturalEqual employment opportunity
dc.subject.naturalFair employment practice
dc.subject.naturalJob discrimination
dc.subject.naturalAffirmative action programs
dc.subject.naturalSex dicrimination against women
dc.subject.naturalPay equity
dc.subject.naturalSexism
dc.subject.naturalEqual rights amendment
dc.subject.naturalEmancipation of women
dc.subject.naturalEqual rights
dc.subject.naturalWomen's movements
dc.subject.naturalWomen textile workers
dc.subject.naturalUnfair competition
dc.subject.naturalWages and labor productivity
dc.title.seriesADBI Working Paper Series
dc.title.volumeNo. 648
dc.contributor.imprintAsian Development Bank Institute
oar.themeGender
oar.themeIndustry
oar.adminregionAsia and the Pacific Region
oar.countryBangladesh
oar.countryBhutan
oar.countryIndia
oar.countryMaldives
oar.countryNepal
oar.countrySri Lanka
oar.countryBrunei Darussalam
oar.countryCambodia
oar.countryIndonesia
oar.countryLao People's Democratic
oar.countryMalaysia
oar.countryMyanmar
oar.countryPhilippines
oar.countrySingapore
oar.countryThailand
oar.countryViet Nam
oar.countryCook Islands
oar.countryFiji Islands
oar.countryKiribati
oar.countryMarshall Islands
oar.countryFederated States of Micronesia
oar.countryNauru
oar.countryPalau
oar.countryPapua New Guinea
oar.countrySamoa
oar.countrySolomon Islands
oar.countryTimor-Leste
oar.countryTonga
oar.countryTuvalu
oar.countryVanuatu
oar.countryAfghanistan
oar.countryArmenia
oar.countryAzerbaijan
oar.countryGeorgia
oar.countryKazakhstan
oar.countryKyrgyz Republic
oar.countryPakistan
oar.countryTajikistan
oar.countryTurkmenistan
oar.countryUzbekistan
oar.countryPeople's Republic of China
oar.countryHong Kong
oar.countryChina
oar.countryRepublic of Korea
oar.countryMongolia
oar.countryTaipei,China
oar.identifierOAR-006437
oar.authorShepherd, Ben
oar.authorStone, Susan
oar.importTRUE
oar.googlescholar.linkpresenttrue


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    The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) Working Paper series is a continuation of the formerly named Discussion Paper series which began in January 2003. The numbering of the papers continued without interruption or change. ADBI was established in 1997 in Tokyo, Japan, to help build capacity, skills, and knowledge related to poverty reduction and other areas that support long-term growth and competitiveness in developing economies in Asia and the Pacific.

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