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Human Capital and Urbanization in the People’s Republic of China

dc.contributor.authorChunbing Xing
dc.description.abstractThe relationship between human capital development and urbanization in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is explored, highlighting the institutional factors of the hukou system and decentralized fiscal system. Educated workers disproportionately reside in urban areas and in large cities, and the returns to education are significantly higher in urban areas relative to those in rural areas, and in large, educated cities relative to small, less-educated cities. In addition, the external returns to education in urban areas are at least comparable to the magnitude of private returns. Rural areas are the major reservoir for urban population growth, and the more educated have a higher chance of moving to cities and obtaining urban hukou. Relaxing the hukou restriction, increasing education levels of rural residents, providing training for rural–urban migrants, and guaranteeing equal opportunity for all residents are necessary for a sustainable rbanization process in the PRC. In terms of health, rural–urban migration is selective in that healthy rural residents choose to migrate. Occupational choices and living conditions are detrimental to migrants’ health, however. While migration has a positive effect on migrant children, its effect on “left-behind” children is unclear.
dc.publisherAsian Development Bank Institute
dc.rightsCC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.titleHuman Capital and Urbanization in the People’s Republic of China
dc.typeWorking Papers
dc.subject.expertUrban Plans
dc.subject.expertUrban agriculture
dc.subject.expertEconomic Development
dc.subject.expertRural Urban Migration
dc.subject.expertInstitutional Framework
dc.subject.expertBusiness Management
dc.subject.expertCorporate Restructuring
dc.subject.adbUrban Services
dc.subject.adbUrban Projects
dc.subject.adbUrban Problems
dc.subject.adbUrban Poverty
dc.subject.adbUrban Policy
dc.subject.adbUrban Planning
dc.subject.adbUrban Infrastructure
dc.subject.adbUrban Health
dc.subject.adbUrban Government
dc.subject.adbUrban Economic Development
dc.subject.adbUrban Development Finance
dc.subject.adbUrban Development
dc.subject.adbUrban Conditions
dc.subject.adbUrban Communities
dc.subject.adbUrban Population
dc.subject.adbAssessing Corporate Governance
dc.subject.adbCorporate Governance Reform
dc.subject.adbGovernance Models
dc.subject.naturalLocal government
dc.subject.naturalUrban renewal
dc.subject.naturalUrban housing
dc.subject.naturalUrban sociology
dc.subject.naturalTransit systems
dc.subject.naturalRapid transit
dc.subject.naturalPublic transit
dc.subject.naturalMass transit
dc.subject.naturalPersonnel management
dc.subject.naturalCorporate reorganizations
dc.subject.naturalIntergovernmental cooperation
dc.title.seriesADBI Working Paper Series
dc.title.volumeNo. 603
dc.contributor.imprintAsian Development Bank Institute
oar.themeLabor Migration
oar.adminregionEast Asia Region
oar.countryPeople's Republic of China
oar.authorXing, Chunbing

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  • ADBI Working Papers
    The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) Working Paper series is a continuation of the formerly named Discussion Paper series which began in January 2003. The numbering of the papers continued without interruption or change. ADBI was established in 1997 in Tokyo, Japan, to help build capacity, skills, and knowledge related to poverty reduction and other areas that support long-term growth and competitiveness in developing economies in Asia and the Pacific.

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