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Exploring Access and Equity in Malaysia's Private Higher Education

dc.contributor.authorSiew Yean Tham
dc.description.abstractPrivate higher education institutions (PrHEIs) are utilized to complement public provision due to financial constraints faced in public provision. However, increasing private provision has raised interesting questions as to who gets educated in these PrHEIs. Is increasing private supply enlarging the circle of opportunity to reach those who might otherwise have been unable to enter university or college? In other words, has the explosion in private supply translated into greater inclusion or increased exclusion? This paper explores the access and equity issues in Malaysia’s private higher education system. Malaysia is an interesting case study due to the significant presence of PrHEIs in the country and their contribution toward student enrolment. The findings show that the Malaysian government has provided considerable financial support for the development of PrHEIs, through the provision of incentives, subsidized loans, and scholarships. Quality assurance efforts further enhance the development of private provision, as student loans and scholarships are only provided for students on accredited programs. Therefore, PrHEIs have widened access and equity, with the help of government support. Despite this, Malaysia’s model of providing access and equity through private provision may be unsustainable, due to the poor repayment record of student loans and the economic need to reduce the fiscal deficit of the government.
dc.publisherAsian Development Bank
dc.rightsCC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.titleExploring Access and Equity in Malaysia's Private Higher Education
dc.typeWorking Papers
dc.subject.expertPrivate Education
dc.subject.expertQuality Education
dc.subject.expertHigher Education Costs
dc.subject.expertEducational Reform
dc.subject.expertPrivate Sector Analysis
dc.subject.expertPrivate Sector Participation
dc.subject.expertPrivate Sector Development
dc.subject.adbHigher education institutions
dc.subject.adbHigher education
dc.subject.adbHigher education institutions
dc.subject.adbComparative education
dc.subject.adbEducational policy
dc.subject.adbPrivate enterprises
dc.subject.adbPrivate ownership
dc.subject.naturalColleges and universities
dc.subject.naturalEducational tests and measurements
dc.subject.naturalPrivate universities and colleges
dc.subject.naturalDiscrimination in higher education
dc.subject.naturalUniversities and colleges
dc.subject.naturalHigher education and state
dc.subject.naturalFree markets
dc.title.seriesADBI Working Paper Series
dc.contributor.imprintAsian Development Bank
oar.themePrivate Sector
oar.adminregionSoutheast Asia Region
oar.authorTham, Siew Yean

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  • ADBI Working Papers
    The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) Working Paper series is a continuation of the formerly named Discussion Paper series which began in January 2003. The numbering of the papers continued without interruption or change. ADBI was established in 1997 in Tokyo, Japan, to help build capacity, skills, and knowledge related to poverty reduction and other areas that support long-term growth and competitiveness in developing economies in Asia and the Pacific.

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