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Children and the Labor Force Participation and Earnings of Parents in the Philippines

dc.contributor.authorAniceto C. Orbeta, Jr.
dc.description.abstractHow children affects the labor force participation and earnings of mothers and fathers can spell the difference on whether additional children can expect the needed care or not. When parents exert more effort with additional children, then their impact of on the welfare of the family will be mitigated. When the opposite happens, not only will additional children not get the needed support, they will also cause the deterioration of welfare of the other members of the household as resources are spread to more members. It is therefore important to quantify the impact of children on the work effort and earnings of their parents. Even though the average education of women in the Philippines is higher, their labor force participation is significantly lower than her Asian neighbors. One explanation that can be put forward is, of course, the inconsistent growth rate the country has been experiencing for a couple of decades now. Another, perhaps commonly forgotten reason, is that while her neighbors have successfully brought down their fertility rates, the Philippines has failed to reduced its fertility rate as fast as say Thailand, Indonesia and Viet Nam. The burden of many children can limit the ability of mothers to avail of work opportunities thus stalling the rise in the work uptake of Filipino women. This paper formulates and estimates a model of the determinants of the labor force participation and earnings of mothers and fathers with the number of children as one the explanatory variables that include individual, household and community characteristics. It uses the nationally representative 2002 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey in the analysis. This is one of the few papers that recognized and thoroughly tested the endogeneity of the children in these equations. This, however, did not produce positive results with the dataset used. This result lends support to the validity of using estimates that consider the number of children exogenous in the data set used for the study. The estimation generated rich results that provided quantitative estimates of the impact of children on the labor force participation and earnings of parents. The estimates point to a highly regressive impact of additional children on Philippine households.
dc.publisherAsian Development Bank
dc.rightsCC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.titleChildren and the Labor Force Participation and Earnings of Parents in the Philippines
dc.typeWorking Papers
dc.subject.expertGender Discrimination
dc.subject.expertGender Equality
dc.subject.expertGender Inequality
dc.subject.expertAlleviating Poverty
dc.subject.expertExtreme Poverty
dc.subject.expertFight Against Poverty
dc.subject.expertGlobal Poverty
dc.subject.expertHealth Aspects Of Poverty
dc.subject.expertIndicators Of Poverty
dc.subject.expertParticipatory Poverty Assessment
dc.subject.expertPoverty Eradication
dc.subject.expertPoverty Analysis
dc.subject.expertPoverty In Developing Countries
dc.subject.expertPoverty Reduction Efforts
dc.subject.expertUrban Poverty
dc.subject.adbComparative Analysis
dc.subject.adbSocial Research
dc.subject.adbSex Discrimination
dc.subject.adbEmployment Discrimination
dc.subject.adbWomen's Rights
dc.subject.adbEqual Opportunity
dc.subject.adbEqual Pay
dc.subject.adbMen's Role
dc.subject.adbWomen's Role
dc.subject.adbDevelopment Indicators
dc.subject.adbEnvironmental Indicators
dc.subject.adbEconomic Indicators
dc.subject.adbEducational Indicators
dc.subject.adbDemographic Indicators
dc.subject.adbHealth Indicators
dc.subject.adbDisadvantaged Groups
dc.subject.adbLow Income Groups
dc.subject.adbSocially Disadvantaged Children
dc.subject.adbRural Conditions
dc.subject.adbRural Development
dc.subject.adbSocial Conditions
dc.subject.naturalGender-based analysis
dc.subject.naturalPay equity
dc.subject.naturalEqual rights amendment|Equal rights
dc.subject.naturalEconomic forecasting
dc.subject.naturalHealth expectancy
dc.subject.naturalSocial groups
dc.subject.naturalPolitical participation
dc.subject.naturalDistribution of income
dc.subject.naturalInequality of income
dc.subject.naturalDeveloping countries
dc.subject.naturalRural community development
dc.subject.naturalMass society
dc.subject.naturalSocial change
dc.subject.naturalSocial policy
dc.subject.naturalSocial stability
dc.subject.naturalSustainable development
dc.title.seriesADBI Working Paper Series
dc.contributor.imprintAsian Development Bank
oar.adminregionSoutheast Asia Region
oar.authorAniceto C. Orbeta, Jr.

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  • ADBI Working Papers
    The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) Working Paper series is a continuation of the formerly named Discussion Paper series which began in January 2003. The numbering of the papers continued without interruption or change. ADBI was established in 1997 in Tokyo, Japan, to help build capacity, skills, and knowledge related to poverty reduction and other areas that support long-term growth and competitiveness in developing economies in Asia and the Pacific.

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