ADBI Working Papers

The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) Working Paper series is a continuation of the formerly named Discussion Paper series which began in January 2003. The numbering of the papers continued without interruption or change. ADBI was established in 1997 in Tokyo, Japan, to help build capacity, skills, and knowledge related to poverty reduction and other areas that support long-term growth and competitiveness in developing economies in Asia and the Pacific.


  • Financial Inclusion, Financial Literacy, and Financial Education in Azerbaijan 

    Ibadoghlu, Gubad (Asian Development Bank Institute, 2018-05-15)
    This paper discusses the status of financial inclusion, education, and literacy in Azerbaijan as well as measures to foster the development of SMEs, which currently have inadequate access to financial resources. The primary policy challenge faced by ...
  • Financial Inclusion, Regulation, Financial Literacy, and Financial Education in Armenia 

    Nurbekyan, Armen; Hovanessian, Naneh (Asian Development Bank Institute, 2018-05-15)
    Financial inclusion has significantly advanced in Armenia during the last decade. Rural and urban areas, however, have benefited unevenly. The high cost of providing financial services, the lack of physical infrastructure, higher poverty rates, and the ...
  • Young Enterprises and Bank Credit Denials 

    Mascia, Danilo V. (Asian Development Bank Institute, 2018-05-15)
    By employing a sample of 20,956 observations of non-financial SMEs headquartered in the Euro area, between 2009 and 2015, we test whether young businesses are more likely to face credit rejections from lenders than their older peers. Our findings appear ...
  • Green Energy Finance in Australia and New Zealand 

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Sise, Greg (Asian Development Bank Institute, 2018-05-15)
    We explore the history and current status of green energy finance in Australia and New Zealand. Although both countries have enviable renewable energy resources with a 100% renewable mix considered feasible, the two countries present highly contrasting ...

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