Toward an Inclusive Social Insurance Coverage in the Philippines: Examining Gender Disparities
Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Cabaero, Carlos C. | July 2021
The Philippines, a country prone to natural calamities and vulnerable to economic fluctuations, has much to accomplish in improving workers’ access to social protection. A focus on women’s access to social protection programs is crucial because of their significantly lower labor force participation rate than men. An Asian Development Bank study noted disparities between men's and women’s access to social protection, particularly in social insurance. The study attributed women's inability to gain social insurance benefits to their low representation in the formal sector. Using survey-based data from the Philippine Statistics Authority, this paper looks into the coverage of major social protection programs in the Philippines, such as the Government Service Insurance System for government workers, Social Security System for private-sector workers, and Philippine Health Insurance Corporation. It examines the circumstances of different types of workers, such as wage and nonwage earners, self-employed, and household workers, among others. It identifies the locations of individuals who have no access to social protection programs and belong to the bottom 30 percent of households in the country, as they represent those most in need of government intervention. This is supplemented by an empirical estimation of the likelihood of social insurance coverage for both employed and unemployed individuals. It likewise looks at the characteristics of those not in the labor force, which the study identified as the primary reason for their exclusion from social protection coverage. Furthermore, it examines the social insurance aspect of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program to gain insights into how the country can improve coverage of social protection programs.
CitationTabuga, Aubrey D.; Cabaero, Carlos C.. 2021. Toward an Inclusive Social Insurance Coverage in the Philippines: Examining Gender Disparities. © Philippine Institute for Development Studies. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/13954.
Equal employment opportunity
Fair employment practice
Affirmative action programs
Sex discrimination against women
Equal rights amendment
Emancipation of women
Access to social programsShow allCollapse