Assessing Energy Security in the Caspian Region: The Geopolitical Implications for European Energy Strategy
Aydin, Ulviyye; Azhgaliyeva, Dina | October 2019
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Western countries have signed several agreements regarding the use of hydrocarbon resources in the Caspian Basin, with the aim of diversifying their energy suppliers. However, recession in the world economy and persistently low oil prices have profoundly affected the economies of the Caspian states, whose gross domestic product and exports are dominated by oil and oil products. Strongly dependent on export revenues from oil and gas, the economic growth of these states has slowed since 2014. Although limited energy resources have stimulated an emphasis on security of supply, fundamentally understood as a continued and low-risk strategy of interruption of energy import flows, low oil prices have also maintained focus on the challenge of security of demand faced by energy-producing economies in terms of stable energy export revenues. However, geopolitical developments around the world, especially local armed conflicts, highlight the importance of secure routes, as they present a threat to energy transportation. Using an indicator-based approach and country-level data over the period 2000–2017, this paper assesses the security of demand for the oil and gas of three countries in the Caspian region: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan, over a 16-year period, capturing the geopolitical situation and contributing to a greater understanding of the impact of energy-transporting countries’ geopolitical situation on energy transportation to the European Union (EU). The results demonstrate that risk of energy security of demand is greater when political risk in energy-transporting countries is included within a measure of energy security of demand, i.e., risky external energy demand. The sharp decline in political stability and absence of violence or terrorism ratings in Ukraine and Turkey has increased the risk of security of energy demand in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. The results highlight the importance of cooperation not only between the EU and the Caspian region, but also with energy-transporting countries, such as Ukraine, Georgia, and Turkey. Alternatively, routes may be found that bypass countries with low levels of political stability, such as through the Trans-Caspian Pipeline.
CitationAydin, Ulviyye; Azhgaliyeva, Dina. 2019. Assessing Energy Security in the Caspian Region: The Geopolitical Implications for European Energy Strategy. © Asian Development Bank Institute. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/11237.
Energy Development Finance
Health Care Cost Control
Health Care Access
World Trade Organization
Regional development bank
Supply and demand
Regional trading blocs
Foreign trade and employment
Foreign trade regulation
Industrial relationsShow allCollapse
MetadataShow full item record
Energy Infrastructure for Decarbonizing Other Energy Sectors Through Renewable Electricity - A Spatio-Temporal Analysis from Useful Energy Demand to Renewable Energy Supply of Sector Coupling Pathways Based on the German Case Kockel, Christina; Nolting, Lars; Priesmann, Jan; Praktiknjo, Aaron (Asian Development Bank Institute, 2020-10-30)While progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is notable in the power sector, other sectors such as transportation and often heating are lagging behind. A strategy to propagate greenhouse gas emission reductions from the power sector to other sectors is so-called “sector coupling.” Against this backdrop, we ask the following two questions: (1) To what extent does demand for (useful and final) ...While progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is notable in the power sector, other sectors such as transportation and often heating are lagging behind. A strategy to propagate greenhouse gas emission reductions from the power sector to other ...
Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Integration in ASEAN and East Asian Countries: Prospects of Hydrogen as a Energy Carrier vs. Other Alternatives Li, Yanfei; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, 2020-09-15)This study investigates the economics of using hydrogen to store renewable energy and subsequently consumed by downstream applications in ASEAN and East Asian countries. For the power sector, the cost of storing and then delivering each kilowatt-hour of renewable energy, which includes the cost of producing hydrogen, transporting and storing hydrogen, and then converting it into electricity, is ...This study investigates the economics of using hydrogen to store renewable energy and subsequently consumed by downstream applications in ASEAN and East Asian countries. For the power sector, the cost of storing and then delivering each kilowatt-hour ...
Asian Development Bank (Asian Development Bank, 2013-06-01)This report examines prospects for ADB to ramp up efforts in the region for greater utilization of demand-side energy efficiency, the most cost-effective source of energy supply. The report further identifies global and regional trends that are driving Asia’s energy demand and the resulting policy and regulatory environment for energy efficiency.This report examines prospects for ADB to ramp up efforts in the region for greater utilization of demand-side energy efficiency, the most cost-effective source of energy supply. The report further identifies global and regional trends that are driving ...